Middle English language and New English Terminology Essay

MIDSECTION ENGLISH AND NEW ENGLISH VOCABULARY

The vocabulary inside the ME period shows great instability and constant and rapid changes. Many terms became obsolete; a lot of them shown the constantly changing life with the speakers and were under the influence of contacts with other nations.

1 ) Internal means of enriching terminology.

Inner sources of terminology growth started to be less important in MYSELF. It might had been due to great expansion of foreign words (especially French). Beginning with the 15 century up the seventeen c. the role of internal options became more important though the stream of phrases from other dialects continued. While before, the phrase formation dropped into two sorts: word derivation and word composition.

Phrase derivation

Under word derivation we suggest affixation which may be of two styles: suffixation and prefixation.

The majority of OE adjonction was still maintained in ME PERSONALLY but they were becoming fewer productive. The introduction of prefixes was uneven. In ME quite a few fell in disuse ( such as ikke-, ӡe-, tō ), inside the 15th. And 16th c. the use of indigenous prefixes grew again (such as adverse mis-, un-: e. g. ME mislayen- NE mislay; especially with international stems e. g. NE misjudge, mispronounce). Some prefixes developed from OE adverbs and prepositions: – ūt > out NE final result, outlook – ofer> above overload, forget about

– under> under underfeed, undermine

Early on NE prefixes could are derived from foreign resources, French Latina, Greek. People from france words with re- came into E: MYSELF redressen, reformen. Since the 16th c. re- was used as a means of word derivation: regret, refill, readjust reopen, reattack. Between other obtained prefixes there was

– de-, dis-en/in (im-, il, ir,, non-) of the Franco-Roman source: ME destructuctive, dischargen, discomforten, enablen, enclosen, NE recruit, enrich, inhuman, non-Germanic. Amongst OE noun suffixes there are some new items, which got developed from root-morphemes: -dom, hād (NE hood) scipe: churchdom, brotherhood, courtship. In Late ME and Early NENNI there arrived to use a lot of borrowed suffixes: – the native -estre was substituted by the French ess: goddess, princess, authoress; – -ee: employee, audience;

– -or: collector, refrigerator;

– -ist: capitalist, structuralist

– -ance / ence: -age,, ment, -ism, tion/sion:

Among took out adjective adjonction were:

– - ready / ible: capable, eatable

– -ous: tremendous;

– -al, ic, ive: cost effective, atomic, private investigator

The ME language seen other way of word difference such as appear interchange, term stress and there produced a especially English technique of word derivation – alteration which has progressed into a successful way of creating new words and phrases.

Sound interchange

New vowel alterations inside the root may arise while

a) a result of qualitative alterations of vowels in Early ME:

wise – wisdom,

clean – cleansing,

untamed – wilder (сбиваться с пути, сбивать с толку, заблуждаться), confused (сбитый с толку) wilderness( дикая местность, девственная природа) b) because of weakening and loss of various suffixes and grammatical endings. (If these elements were decreased, sound interchange turned out to be the sole means of variation between several pairs of words: OEM ME NENNI

sonӡ – sinӡan music – singen song – to sing full – fyllan total – fillen full – to fill up talu – tellan adventure – tellen tale –to tell Inside the absence of closing there were circumstances of consonant interchange: OE ME EINE

hūs – hūsanhous – housenhouse [haus] – to accommodate [hauz] mūþ – mūþanmouth – mouthenmouth [s] –to mouth [z]

Word anxiety

The deterioration and loss in final syllables also induced the growth of role of stress in word-building in ME. The shifting of word-stress was commonly used in derivatives of borrowed words: Early NENNI: con'fide – 'confidence, pre'fer – 'preference, pre'cede – 'precedence It can be in full obedience with FACTORY practice, the moment verb prefixes were not...

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